Journal of Human Development and Education for Specialized Research

About the Journal :

The Journal of Human Development and Education for Specialized Research is an academic journal issued by the Scientific Institute for Advanced Training and Studies. The aim of this journal is to disseminate serious studies based on theoretical and field research, and to promote multidisciplinary studies in human development, management and education for specialized research and become a leading journal in human development and education in the world. The Journal also aims at publishing theoretical and applied researches in the fields of human development and education for specialized research such as human resources management, business administration, communication sciences, development studies, economic sciences, education sciences, history, industrial relations, media sciences, psychology, Public administration, religious studies and others.


This paper deals with the subject of harmony in the dimensions of citizenship: Cognitive, behavioral and emotional among university students, and the citizenship time orientation within each of these dimensions about past, present and future of their society. We used the descriptive analytical method; the researcher constructs a citizenship questionnaire to measure the mentioned dimensions. The researchers developed two versions of the questionnaire; self-report and a peer description version. After having the study tool validated and having its reliability calculated, the researchers applied it on a randomly chosen sample constituted 199 students at the Collage of Applied Sciences in Nizwa (Oman). The results indicated that the highest mean of scores was the past oriented subscale, then the present oriented subscale and in the last place the future oriented subscale. The differences are statistically significant at the 0.000 significance planed by using the coefficient Wilks' Lambda. Multivariate test showed no significant effect of the students’ progress in their years studies neither on the averages of the dimensions (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) nor on the dimensions of the citizenship time-orientation. On the other hand, the results indicated statistically significant differences between the two copies of the scale (self-report versus description colleagues) on the emotional and behavioral dimensions in favor of self-report. These results indicate that the use of self-report scales to measure the citizenship among groups is less reliable than measures of peer description scales.